Directions 1. Use the instructional model to show students where they are in the course of the unit. Show slide 2 of the 4.2 Explaining How Cows Move and Function: Cellular Respiration PPT. 2. Revisit students’ arguments about what happens when mealworms eat. Show slide 3 of the 4.2 Explaining How Cows Move and Function: Cellular Respiration PPT. Tell students that this activity’s purpose is to develop explanations for how cows use food to move and function. Return each student’s copy of 3.3 Evidence-Based Arguments Tool for Mealworms Eating and have them review their arguments before they completed the molecular modeling activity. Their arguments and unanswered questions should also apply to cows. Ask them to think about what they know now that they didn’t know then. 3. Have complete the front of the Explanations Process Tool. Show slide 4 of the 4.2 Explaining How Cows Move and Function: Cellular Respiration PPT. Give each student one copy of 4.2 Explanations Tool for Cow Cellular Respiration. Make sure students understand that they will use the information from the to help them construct their explanations paragraphs on the back. Give students about 10 minutes to complete the front of the Explanations Process Tool. Display slide 5. Then, have students compare their responses with a partner, with the goal of confirming that their responses are the same. 4. Have students check the front of the explanations tool using the PPT. Use slides 6-12 in the PPT to have the students discuss what is happening to matter during cellular respiration and to have them check their answers to the Matter Movement Question on their 4.2 Explanations Tool for Cow Cellular Respiration. Show students slide 6 to have them think about where atoms are moving from and moving to during cellular respiration. Show slide 7 to explain that atoms and molecules are moving so that animals can get energy through cellular respiration: Animals need glucose and oxygen as reactants, and they must get rid of carbon dioxide and water as waste. Show slide 8 to explain a simplified version of movement of all these materials through the cow. Display slides 9-12 to have students compare their answers to the Matter Movement Question with the answers on the slide. Students only need to have arrows showing the movement of molecules into and out of the cell. Have students use a different colored writing utensil to make any needed changes to their answers. Allow students to ask questions if they do not understand why their ideas are incorrect. 5. Have students think about how cellular respiration also answers the Matter Change Question. Show slide 13 to zoom into a muscle cell in the cow’s leg to illustrate cellular respiration at the cellular scale. Glucose and oxygen enter the cell; carbon dioxide and water leave—and cell gets energy to function! Display slides 14-15 to have students compare their answers to the Matter Change Question on the 4.2 Explanations Tool for Cow Cellular Respiration with the answers on the slide. Have students use a different colored writing utensil to make any needed changes to their answers. Allow students to ask questions if they do not understand why their ideas are incorrect. 6. Discuss how cellular respiration helps to answer Energy Change questions... Discuss how cellular respiration helps to answer Energy Change questions, including unanswered questions about mealworms and cows. Display slide 16 to have students compare their answers to the Energy Change Question on the 4.2 Explanations Tool for Cow Cellular Respiration with the answers on the slide. . Have students use a different colored writing utensil to make any needed changes to their answers. Allow students to ask questions if they do not understand why their ideas are incorrect. Have students consider how these answers address Energy Change at macroscopic, atomic-molecular, and cellular scales. 7. Have students write paragraph explanations of the process of cellular respiration in cows. Display slide 17. Ask students to write paragraphs explaining the process of cellular respiration on the second page of the 4.2 Explanations Tool for Cow Cellular Respiration. Refer student to the checklist and questions on the Three Questions Handout for reminders about what to include in their paragraph Remind students that they have the information they need in their responses to the questions on the front of the Explanations Tool. Remind students that the graphic organizer on the front has the information they need to write their explanations paragraphs. Remind students to refer to their Three Questions Handout and Explanations Checklist to review what should be included in a good explanation. 8. Have students share explanations with each other. Show slide 18 of the 4.2 Explaining How Cows Move and Function: Cellular Respiration PPT. Divide students into pairs and have them compare explanations for the Three Questions and the final explanation on the process tool. Have students use the Three Questions 11x17 Poster (or Handout) as a reference. Have students check their explanations with the middle and right-hand columns of the poster to make sure they are following the “rules.” 9. (Optional) Have students critique example explanations. Display Slide 19 of the PPT. Have students look at two handouts: (a) The Three Questions Handout, and (b) the Example Animal Explanations Handout. Ask students to evaluate the two example explanations of cow cellular respiration on the Animals Example Explanations Handout: Which explanation is better? Why? Have students use the Three Questions Explanation Checklist on the back of the Three Questions Handout to justify their critiques of the explanations. 10. Have students critique and improve their full explanations. Display slide 19 of the PPT for the full explanation. Have students use the Three Questions Explanation Checklist on the back of the Three Questions Handout to check that their story includes each of the parts (matter movement, matter change, energy change, and matter movement). If students don’t have all four parts in their explanation, instruct them to add to their explanation using a different colored writing utensil. If students have model explanations to share, display student work and discuss. If students have common areas of weakness in their explanations, ask for a volunteer to share, display student work, and discuss ways of strengthening the response. 11. Have students read about how animals get the energy the need to move. Pass out 4.2 How do Animals Get the Energy They Need to Move? Reading. The reading provides a summary explanation of cellular respiration and additional information about muscle fatigue. Have students read using the Questions, Connections, Questions Student Reading Strategy. See the Questions, Connections, Questions Reading Strategy Educator Resource document for information about how to engage students with this strategy. After pairs are finished reading, have students share with the class what they found interesting and any questions they have. 12. Have students connect their atomic molecular explanations to the macroscopic scale by using the Animals Matter Tracing Tool. Show slide 20. Give students the Animals Matter Tracing Tool. Have students individually: Choose a cell and draw arrows showing the carbon-containing molecules that go to the cell and leave the cell (first page) Use the steps in the Three Questions to explain how matter and energy move and change in the cell (second page) Show slides 21 and 22. Have students compare their answers to the answers on the slides, discuss, and revise their answers if necessary. 13. Revisit unanswered questions. Show slide 23. Have students look at their 3.3 Evidence-Based Arguments Tool for Mealworms Eating. Display the class list of unanswered questions from Activity 3.3. Ask students which of their unanswered questions they can now answer with their understanding of Cellular Respiration. Which ones are left unanswered? Do they have any new questions to add to the list? One question that students should have is: if cows eat plants that are mostly carbohydrates, where does the glucose that enters the cell come from? This and other remaining questions will be answered in future lessons on digestion and biosynthesis. 14. Have students complete an exit ticket. Show slide 24 of the 4.2 Explaining How Cows Move and Function: Cellular Respiration PPT. Conclusions: How do matter and energy change during cellular respiration? Predictions and Planning: Where do you think the glucose for cellular respiration comes from? On a sheet of paper or a sticky note, have students individually answer the exit ticket questions. Depending on time, you may have students answer both questions, assign students to answer a particular question, or let students choose one question to answer. Collect and review the answers. The conclusions question will provide you with information about what your students are taking away from the activity. Student answers to the conclusions question can be used on the Driving Question Board (if you are using one). The Predictions and Planning question allows students to begin thinking about the next activity and allows you to assess their current ideas as you prepare for the next activity. Student answers to the Predictions and Planning question can be used as a lead in to the next activity. 15. Have discussion to complete the Learning Tracking Tool for this activity. Show slide 24 of the 4.2 Explaining How Cows Move and Function: Cellular Respiration PPT. Pass out a Learning Tracking Tool for Animals to each student. Explain that students will add to the tool after activities to keep track of what they have figured out that will help them to answer the unit driving question. Have students write the activity name in the first column, "Explaining How Cows Move and Function" and their role, “Explainer” in the first column." Have a class discussion about what students figured out during the activity that will help them in answering the unit driving question. When you come to consensus as a class, have students record the answer in the second column of the tool. Have a class discussion about what students are wondering now that will help them move towards answering the unit driving question. Have students record the questions in the third column of the tool. Have students keep their Learning Tracking Tool for future activities. Example Learning Tracking Tool Activity Chunk What Did We Do? What Did We Figure Out? What Are We Asking Now? Explaining How Cows Move and Function Explainer Model the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water using molecular model kits and use the Explanations Tool to explain what happens when cows move and function. Some matter leaves the body as urine and waste but most matter leaves the body as CO2 during cellular respiration. What happens to food when it is in the body?