The tables below show goals for this unit in two forms. A list of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) addressed by this unit is followed by a table showing specific target performances for each activity. Next Generation Science Standards The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Performance Expectations that middle and high school students can achieve through completing the Ecosystems Unit are listed below. To read a discussion of how the Carbon TIME project is designed to help students achieve the performances represented in the NGSS, please see Three-dimensional Learning in Carbon TIME. High School Matter and Its Interactions. HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsps1-matter-interactions Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsls2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-dynamics Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. HS-LS2-7. Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity. Earth’s Systems. HS-ESS2-2. Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems. Weather and Climate. HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate. http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsls2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-dynamics Earth’s Systems. HS-ESS2-6. Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess-es-earth-systems Earth and Human Activity. HS-ESS3-4. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems. http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess3-earth-human-activity Earth and Human Activity. HS-ESS3-5. Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess3-earth-human-activity Earth and Human Activity. HS-ESS3-6. Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity. http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess3-earth-human-activity Middle School MS-ESS2-1. Develop a model to describe the cycling of the Earth’s materials and the flow of energy that drives this process. Earth and Human Activity. MS-ESS3-3. Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msess3-earth-human-activity Human Impacts. MS-ESS3-4. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capital consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msess-hi-human-impacts Earth and Human Activity. MS-ESS3-5. Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msess3-earth-human-activity Target Performances for Each Activity All Carbon TIME units are organized around a common purpose: assessing and scaffolding students’ three-dimensional engagement with phenomena. Every Carbon TIME activity has its specific expectation for students’ three-dimensional engagement with phenomena, what we call its target performance. Each activity also includes tools and strategies that teachers can use to asses and scaffold the target performance in rigorous and responsive ways. The target performances for each activity in the Ecosystems unit are listed in the table below.