The tables below show goals for this unit in two forms. A list of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) addressed by this unit is followed by a table showing specific target performances for each activity. Next Generation Science Standards The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Performance Expectations that middle and high school students can achieve through completing the Ecosystems Unit are listed below. To read a discussion of how the Carbon TIME project is designed to help students achieve the performances represented in the NGSS, please see Three-dimensional Learning in Carbon TIME. High School Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. HS-LS2-1. Use mathematical and or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales. https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/hs-ls2-1-ecosystems-interactions-energy-and-dynamics Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. HS-LS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems at different scales. https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/hs-ls2-2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-and-dynamics Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/hs-ls2-3-ecosystems-interactions-energy-and-dynamics Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/hs-ls2-4-ecosystems-interactions-energy-and-dynamics Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. HS-LS2-5: Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/hs-ls2-5-ecosystems-interactions-energy-and-dynamics Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. HS-LS2-6: Evaluate claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. https://www.nextgenscience.org/pe/hs-ls2-6-ecosystems-interactions-energy-and-dynamics Earth’s Systems. HS-ESS2-6. Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess-es-earth-systems Middle School Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems. MS-LS1-6. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy in and out of organisms. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msls1-molecules-organisms-structures-processes Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems. MS-LS2-1. Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msls2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-dynamics Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems. MS-LS2-2. Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msls2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-dynamics Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems. MS-LS2-3. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msls2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-dynamics Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems. MS-LS2-4. Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msls2-ecosystems-interactions-energy-dynamics Earth’s Systems. MS-ESS2-1. Develop a model to describe the cycling of earth’s materials and the flow of energy that drives this process. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msess-es-earth-systems Human Impacts. MS-ESS3-4. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems. http://www.nextgenscience.org/msess-hi-human-impacts Target Performances for Each Activity All Carbon TIME units are organized around a common purpose: assessing and scaffolding students’ three-dimensional engagement with phenomena. Every Carbon TIME activity has its specific expectation for students’ three-dimensional engagement with phenomena, what we call its target performance. Each activity also includes tools and strategies that teachers can use to asses and scaffold the target performance in rigorous and responsive ways. The target performances for each activity in the Ecosystems unit are listed in the table below.