Directions 1. Use the instructional model to show students where they are in the course of the unit. Show slide 2 of the 4.5 Explaining Ethanol Burning PPT. 2. Revisit students’ arguments about what happens to ethanol when it burns. Show slide 3 of the 4.5 Explaining Ethanol Burning PPT. Tell students that this activity’s purpose is to develop explanations for what happens when ethanol burns. Return each students’ copy of 4.3 Evidence-Based Arguments Tool for Ethanol Burning and have them review their arguments before they completed the molecular modeling activity. Ask them to think about what they know now that they didn’t know then. 3. Have students complete the front of the Explanations Process Tool. Show slide 4 of the 4.5 Explaining Ethanol Burning PPT. Give each student one copy of 4.5 Explanations Tool for Ethanol Burning. Give students about 10 minutes to complete the Explanations process tool. Make sure students understand that they will use the information from the front of the explanations tool help them construct their explanations paragraphs on the back. Display slide 5. Then, have students compare their responses with the class, with the goal of confirming that their responses are the same. 4. Have students check the front of the explanations tool using the PPT. Display slides 6-8 of the PPT. Have students compare their answers to the Matter Movement Question with the answers on the slide. Have students use a different colored writing utensil to make any needed changes to their answers. Allow students to ask questions if they do not understand why their ideas are incorrect. If students have model explanations to share, display student work and discuss. If students have common areas of weakness in their explanations, ask for a volunteer to share, display student work, and discuss ways of strengthening the response. Display slide 9-10 of the PPT for the Matter Change Question and repeat the process above. Display slide 11 of the PPT for the Energy Change Question and repeat the process above. 5. Have students write paragraph explanations of the process of ethanol burning. Display slide 12. Ask students to write paragraphs explaining the process of ethanol burning on the second page of the 4.5 Explanations Tool for Ethanol Burning. Refer student to the checklist and questions on the Three Questions Handout for reminders about what to include in their paragraph Remind students that they have the information they need in their responses to the questions on the front of the Explanations Tool. Remind students that the graphic organizer on the front has the information they need to write their explanations paragraphs. Remind students to refer to their Three Questions Handout and Explanations Checklist to review what should be included in a good explanation. 6. Have students share explanations with each other. Show slide 13 of the 5 Explanations Tool for Ethanol Burning PPT. Divide students into pairs and have them compare explanations for the Three Questions and the final explanation on the process tool. Have students use the Three Questions 11 x 17 Poster (or Handout) as a reference. Have students check their explanations with the middle and right-hand columns of the poster to make sure they are following the “rules.” 7. (Optional) Have students critique example explanations. Display Slide 14 of the PPT. Have students look at two handouts: (a) the Three Questions Handout, and (b) the Example Systems and Scale Explanations Handout. Ask students to evaluate the two example explanations of ethanol burning on the Example Systems and Scale Explanations Handout: Which explanation is better? Why? Have students use the checklist on the back of the Three Questions Handout to justify their critiques of the explanations. 8. Have students critique and improve their full explanations. Display slide 14 of the PPT for the full explanation. Have students use the checklist on the back of the Three Questions Handout to check that their story includes each of the parts (matter movement, matter change, energy change, and matter movement) and answers the prompt in a cohesive way. If students don’t have all four parts in their explanation, instruct them to add to their explanation using a different colored writing utensil. If students have model explanations to share, display student work and discuss. If students have common areas of weakness in their explanations, ask for a volunteer to share, display student work, and discuss ways of strengthening the response. 9. Lead a discussion about how student ideas have changed over time. Display slide 15 of the 4.5 Explaining Ethanol Burning PPT. Have students look back over their process tools for this unit. Have students consider how their ideas changed with regard to scale, movement, and carbon. What do they know about ethanol burning now that they didn’t know before the investigation? 10. (Optional) Have students read about combustion. Pass out 4.5 What Happens When Ethanol Burns? Reading. The reading provides a summary explanation of the combustion of ethanol and additional information about ethanol. Have students read 4.5 What Happens When Ethanol Burns? Readingusing the Questions, Connections, Questions Student Reading Strategy. See the Engaging Students with Readings and the Engaging Students with Readings and the Questions, Connections, Questions Reading Strategy Educator Resource document for information about how to engage students with this strategy. Then, have the students use the 4.5 What Happens When Ethanol Burns? Reading to complete the 4.5 Matter Tracing Tool. 11. (Optional) Have students complete the Big Idea Probe: Fill 'Er Up for the second time. If you decided to use the Big Idea Probe: Fill 'Er Up, have students complete it and share their ideas for a second time. See Using Big Idea Probes and Assessing the Big Idea Probe: Fill 'Er Up for suggestions about how to use the Big Idea Probe. 12. Have a discussion to complete the Learning Tracking Tool for this activity. Show slide 16 of the 4.5 Explanations Tool for Ethanol Burning PPT. Have students take out their Learning Tracking Tool for Systems & Scale. Explain that students will add to the tool after activities to keep track of what they have figured out that will help them to answer the unit driving question. Have students write the activity name "Explaining Ethanol Burning" and their role “Explainer” in the first column, Have a class discussion about what students figured out during the activity that will help them in answering the unit driving question, "What happens when ethanol burns?" When you come to consensus as a class, have students record the answer in the second column of the tool. Have a class discussion about what students are wondering now that will help them move towards answering the unit driving question. Have students record the questions in the third column of the tool. Have students keep their Learning Tracking Tool for future activities. Example Learning Tracking Tool Activity Chunk What Did We Do? What Did We Figure Out? What Are We Asking Now? Explaining Ethanol Burning Explainer Model the chemical change that occurs as ethanol burns using molecular model kits and use the Explanations Tool to explain what happens when ethanol burns. In a flame the atoms in ethanol and oxygen rearrange to form carbon dioxide and water. Chemical energy is changed to heat and light energy when the high-energy C-C and C-H bonds of ethanol are changed to low-energy O-H and C=O bonds. Why does ethanol burn and not water? 13. Have students complete an exit ticket. Show slide 17 of the 4.5 Explaining Ethanol Burning PPT. Conclusions: How do matter and energy change when ethanol burns? Predictions: What do you think happens when natural gas (methane or CH4) burns? On a sheet of paper or a sticky note, have students individually answer the exit ticket questions. Depending on time, you may have students answer both questions, assign students to answer a particular question, or let students choose one question to answer. Collect and review the answers. The conclusions question will provide you with information about what your students are taking away from the activity. Student answers to the conclusions question can be used on the Driving Question Board (if you are using one). The predictions question allows students to begin thinking about the next activity and allows you to assess their current ideas as you prepare for the next activity. Student answers to the predictions question can be used as a lead in to the next activity.